Abstracts of papers 2016

1. Removal of Arsenic in Waters by Electrolysis

Authors: Bhagwan RatnaKansakar, Professor and Purushottam Shrestha, Graduate Student

Abstract: Arsenic is one of the pollutants generally found in groundwater. The consumption of water containing arsenic has adverse health effects. There are many arsenic removal methods. The removal of arsenic in water by electrolysis has been investigated in this study. Electrolysis is found to be a viable method for the arsenic removal in water. The arsenic removed depended on the initial arsenic concentration.  The arsenic removal was best achieved by electrolysis at pH 7, current passing time of 20 minutes and inter-electrode of 2 cm. The standard curve has been developed which can be used as a tool to determine the arsenic removal by electrolysis for any initial arsenic concentration.

Key Words—Current passing time, Initial arsenic concentration, Inter-electrode spacing, pH, Standard curve.

2. Ultra-Dense WDM PON with 12.5-GHz Spaced ASE Spectrum Sliced Channels

Author : Dr. Dipen Manandhar

Abstract—This paper proposes and demonstrates the possibility of 12.5-GHz spaced amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectrum sliced ultra-dense wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (UD-WDMPON) with 1.25Gb/sec data transmission in both downstream and upstream directions over 15 km feeder fiber by implementing 8 channels in downstream direction and 3 channels in upstream direction achieving BER of 10-3 and 10-2 respectively being appropriate for forward error correction (FEC).

Index Terms—Access network, broadband incoherent light, spectrum slicing, wavelength-division multiplexing

3. ENGINEERED BAMBOO OF SOME NEPALESE SPECIES

Author: Rabin Chaulagain, Institute of Engineering (IOE), Pulchowk Campus, Email: rabinchau076@gmail.com

Abstract-Bamboo is a fast growing and perennial woody grass used widely as a construction material.But the use of bamboo has been limited to natural form only, which consist of issues like availability of hollow circular section only, insect attack and many durability issues. Therefore, the study has focused on the manufacture of engineered bamboo product out of some commonly available Nepalese bamboo species by using as less machinery as possible. In the process, two commonly available Nepalese bamboo species, namely, Bambusa nutans sub sp. cupulata(Mal bans, age- 3.5 years) and Bambusa tulda (Taru bans, age- 3.0 years) were selected. The bamboo culms were first cut into strips, planed into rectangular shape and were glued together in the plywood formwork to yield bamboo beams of rectangular sections. The glue used for the research was Polyvinyl Acetate (PVA) glue. Then, the beams were allowed to dry for at least two days in the indoor environment for the glue to dry up properly. Finally, specimens of required shapes and sizes were extracted from those bamboo beams for mechanical testing. The results show that fabrication of bamboo into rectangular joists is possible using this low tech method and good strength results were achieved which proves engineered bamboo as a reliable construction material. Since only the strength parameters were targeted in the research, the fire rating, soaking, curing environment, durability and cost-benefit analysis in terms of adhesive and bamboo itself compared to other timber materials have not been performed.

4. RF Front End Design for a GNSS Receiver

Author: Kunal Kumar Mishra, Lecturer, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Kathmandu Engineering College, Kalimati, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Abstract— A LNA, a buffer and a mixer circuit have been designed for a RF front end of a GNSS receiver using 65-nm CMOS technology. The receiver operates at 1572.42 MHz with a channel bandwidth of 20 MHz. With a power supply of 1.2V, the designed receiver achieves a gain of 110 dB, a total noise figure of 2.5 dB, a gain ripple of 0.59 dB, a Blocker IP1dB at 1710 MHz of -12.3 dBm and input matching (S11) of less than -11.6 dB at 1-2 GHz.

Keywords— Receiver; LNA; buffer; double balanced; Gilbert type; mixer; GALILEO; GPS

5. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF SPACE TIME TRELLIS CODED OFDM SYSTEM OVER RAYLEIGH AND RICIAN FADING CHANNEL

Author:

Kunjan Amatya

Department of Computer Engineering

Kathmandu Engineering College

Kalimati, Kathmandu

Kunjan.amatya@keckist.edu.np

Abstract— Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technology is one of the most promising wireless technologies that can efficiently boost the data transmission rate, improve system coverage, and enhance link reliability. Different strategies have been developed in order to achieve diversity advantage in MIMO system, such as Space-time codes which combine coding gain with diversity gain and preserve orthogonality between antennas. Space Time Block Code (STBC) provides diversity gain while space time trellis code (STTC) provides both coding gain and diversity gains. This research provides the bit error rate (BER) performance for Space-Time Trellis coded MIMO Orthogonal Frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communication system using Minimum Mean-Square-Error (MMSE) channel equalization algorithm. Channel parameters are estimated with the help of pilot data. The system under present study has incorporated QPSK modulation scheme over Rayleigh and Rician fading channels for varying number of transmit and receive antennas. The performance of STTC is presented for 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 states.

Keywords— MIMO, OFDM, STTC, ISI, BER, SNR, MMSE

6. VOLTAGE REGULATION ISSUES RELATED TO RENEWABLE DG INTERCONNECTION AND IMPACT OF RENEWABLE DISTRIBUTION GENERATION ON SYSTEM LOSSES

Author: Namrata Tusuju Shrestha

Abstract—The DG sources must be reliable, dispatch able of proper size and at the proper locations. Since many DGs can be variable energy sources such as solar and wind, there is no guarantee that these conditions will be satisfied and that the full system support benefits will be realized. In fact, power system operations may be adversely impacted by the introduction of DG if certain minimum standards for control, installation and placement are not maintained. The study performed is the practically available sites of Solar Electricity Generation System of Sundarighat (680.4 kW) and integration of Minigrid into National grid (107 kW) at Baglung which concentrates on the contribution of Distributed generation (DG) to distribution system voltages. DG is utilized to help to regulate the system voltage profile to lie close to the desired value, i.e.to reduce the voltage variation. With the varieties of dispersed locations, operating modes, and allowable sizes, DG can be properly designed and controlled to be a powerful means of voltage regulation, and work parallel with the existing voltage regulation. However, it is known that DG may cause the voltage fluctuation to the system due to the counter flow and reactive power change. Thus integration of DG into an existing utility result in several benefits .These benefits include line loss reduction ,reduced  environmental impacts ,peak saving, increased overall energy efficiency ,relieved transmission and distribution congestion, voltage support, and deferred investments to upgrade existing generation, transmission and distribution system. Benefits are not limited to utility only; customers also benefit from DG in term of better quality of supply at lower cost. Integration of renewable energy like solar photovoltaic system, Mini grid is essential for voltage support in the farthest end of distribution system. In both cases there is low penetration Scenario (PDG<0.3Pload) and low dispersion Scenario (#Bus DG=30%Bus load).The study is an intent to quantify the impact of distributed generation (DG) over active and reactive power losses on distribution system. Several simulations over simple radial distribution system were done. Implications about real location and size of DG units were considered using penetration and dispersion level. Simulations over distribution system of Kritipur feeder (periphery of solar generation system) and Baglung near Kushmishera bazaar (periphery of MinigridBaglung) were developed using a PSAT 2.1.6 application in MATLAB .The voltage profiles with and without DG in the feeder were compared. The real and reactive power losses at various penetration level [%] of DG were analysed.The line loss index (LLI) is observed through the simulated result.

7. Performance Comparison of Energy Detector using various Algorithms for Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Nirajan Koirala, Ram Krishna Maharjan

Abstract—the rapid development of wireless technology has resulted in an increase in a variety of wireless standards for various applications causing spectrum inefficiency as a great portion of the licensed spectrum is severely under-utilized. So the concept of opportunistic access was introduced. For the purpose one of the mostly used technique is energy detection based spectrum. Among various methods, selection of thresholds based on signal and noise parameter can be used to define the detection performance. So use of double threshold, adaptive threshold and adaptive double threshold algorithm are used to quantify the detection performance over AWGN and Rayleigh fading channel.

Index Terms—Cognitive Radio (CR), Spectrum Sensing, Energy Detection, Detection Probability (PD), Probability of miss-detection (PM) and Probability of false alarm (PFA)

8. Universal Power Converter For Microhydro Power Plant

Authors:

Laxman Timilsina

Prakash Acharya

Ram Prasad Jnawali

Sushil Paudel

Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Central Campus, Pulchowk, IOE, TU Lalitpur, Nepal. laxmnat993@gmail.com

Prof. Dr. Indraman Tamrakar

Associate Prof. Dr. Netra Prasad Gyawali

Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Central Campus, Pulchowk, IOE, TU. Lalitpur, Nepal.

 im.tamrakar@hotmail.com netra@ioe.edu.np

Abstract—With increasing trends of non-linear and reactive loads even in Micro Hydro Power (MHP) Scheme, problems due to harmonic current and reactive power balance is increasing. The conventional Electronic Load Controller (ELC) for speed control does not take care of effect of unbalanced consumer’s load. The conventional ELC consumes some reactive power due to delayed chopping of waveform of current through ballast load of ELC. This paper proposes an advanced Electronic Universal Controller which takes care of frequency control, reactive power balance and voltage control, harmonic current compensation and un-balanced load compensation by a single compensator. The proposed system operates on the basis of instantaneous p-q theory by which the harmonics and neutral current is suppressed and further the outer control scheme is applied for the frequency balance and reactive power compensation. Index Terms—Electronic Load Controller, Active Power Filter, Power Quality, Non-linear Load, Micro-hydro Power Plant

9. Impact of Yoga on Emotional Intelligence of Engineering Students

Authors:

Er. Durgesh P. Kasaju1, Shanta Kharel2,

1 Bachelor in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Kathmandu Engineering College

2 Sr. Lecturer, Yoga Teacher, Kathmandu Engineering College

Abstract—Yoga has been beneficial in several aspects of human life. Since thousands of years back, it is being practiced in several parts of the world. Its effect on emotional intelligence of people is surveyed in this research. Emotional Intelligence was first coined in 1994. Since then, researchers have been curious to find its importance. Several researches have determined Emotional Intelligence to be associated with academic performance, leadership skills, and work performance. This research aims at finding out whether yoga practice can enhance the emotional intelligence. Engineering students were made to practice yoga for an hour for a whole academic year. Results showed that yoga practice has fundamental increment in the emotional intelligence. Thus regular yoga practice increases emotional intelligence which ultimately affects academic and work performance. Further detail study on effect of yoga on emotional intelligence is recommended.   

Index Terms—Yoga, Emotional Intelligence, Academic performance, Engineering students.

 

  1. Design of lightweight and palm sized UAV

Authors: Sanjivan Satyal, Arica Acharya, Bibhusa Rawal, Irina Sthapit, Erosha Pandey

Abstract—for environmental researches and several assessment operations, remote sensing and geographical information systems are integral geospatial components for interpreting real-world occurrences of atmospheric and land-based phenomenon. The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is one of a suite of tools that has recently been used independently and as an integrated remote sensing resource. Drones are widely being deployed in various fields including surveillance and site assessment. Key factors in surveillance and site assessment are flight time and physical robustness of UAV system used. Capacity of battery, C rating of battery, thrust of motors; overall size of the platform and propellers size are important parameters to be selected while designing or choosing UAV platform. Hence based on experimental data and graphs, most suitable components are selected and integrated to form a UAV platform for above mentioned purpose. This paper explains the smaller size of UAV that has better flight time with increased physical robustness.

Index Terms—UAV (Quad Copter), Flight time, C-Rating of Battery, Quad Copter, Maneuverability

  1. NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION USING DIFFERENT BACK PROPAGATION ALGORITHMS

Authors:

Shree Krishna Sulu,

Senior Lecturer,

Department of Computer Engineering

Kathmandu Engineering College

Kalimati, Kathmandu, Nepal

Email:shreekrishna.sulu@keckist.edu.np

Abstract - The network security has become a very important issue as network attacks have been increasing with the growth of hacking tools, complexity of networks and intrusions in number and severity. The intrusion detection is the process that detects possible network attacks or different security violations, abnormal activities and alerts the occurrences to network administrator. This research is focused on intrusion detection by using Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) with different algorithm of backpropagation neural network (BPNN). In this research, performance of various backpropagation algorithms is evaluated using KDDCup99 dataset. Based on evaluation results, the best model with high attack detection rate is chosen and the best model is selected for network intrusion detection.

Keywords – Intrusion detection, Multilayer Perceptron, KDDCup99, Backpropagation.

  1. Weighting Factor used in Particle Swarm Optimization for Wireless Mesh Network Dynamic Router Node Placement Problem

Authors:

Er. SitaramKhadka

Computer Engineer

Computer Section

Armed Police Force, Headquarters

Kathmandu, Nepal.

sitaram@apf.gov.np

 

Er. Subodh Nepal

Technical Officer

Frequency Management Section

Ministry of Information and Communications

Kathmandu, Nepal.

s_nepal711@yahoo.com

 

Abstract—Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) provide high flexibility of wireless connectivity everywhere within a wide geographical region. The performance of WMNs mainly depends on the geographical placement of mesh routers and mesh clients, in which the placement of mesh routers plays a crucial role. The problem of router node placement (RNP) in WMNs has been studied through various research works. Some solutions are suggested using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO).Basically, there are two objectives to RNP problem, i.e. connectivity and coverage of the network. The solution to RNP problem using PSO approach uses a weighting factor to balance control between these two objectives. The work utilizes different results in different scenarios to see the balance as well as effect of changes due to change in weighting factor. It is found that weighting factor does not play significant role to optimize but only creates monotonous changes in the overall fitness calculation. Finally study suggested that there cannot be exact value of weighting factor that optimally balances two objective functions; rather it can be set as per the scenario and the requirement of the RNP problem.

IndexTerms—Wireless Mesh Network (WMN), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Weighting Factor, Router Node Placement (RNP) problem.

  1. Performance Analysis of Digital Video Broadcasting-Second Generation Terrestrial System

Authors:

Er. Subodh Nepal

Technical Officer

Frequency Management Section

Ministry of Information and Communications

Kathmandu, Nepal.

s_nepal711@yahoo.com

 

Er. SitaramKhadka

Computer Engineer

Computer Section

Armed Police Force, Headquarters

Kathmandu, Nepal.

sitaram@apf.gov.np

Abstract—this paper analyzes the performance of the DVB-T2 (Digital Video Broadcasting-Second Generation Terrestrial) system for the stationary reception. The aim of this research is to implement all the functional blocks as specified in the DVB-T2 specification and analyze the bit error rate performance of the system. This system is able to measure and analyze the performance of bit error rate (BER) versus signal to noise ratio (SNR) in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), Rayleigh, Ricean and Digital Television Group (DTG) channel models. These shows the schemes which have higher data rates are more prone to error than the schemes with lower data rates. The performance of the Ricean channel is remarkable and it is the less effected channel as compared to Rayleigh channel.

IndexTerms—Bit error rate (BER), Digital Video Broadcasting-Second Generation Terrestrial (DVB-T2), Signal to noise ratio (SNR)

  1. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF LINEAR AND NON-LINEAR DETECTION SCHEME ON MIMO SYSTEM

Authors:

Sudarshan Adhikari

Masters of Engineering in Computer Engineering

Nepal College of Information Technology

Balkumari, Lalitpur, Nepal, 2016

(Affiliated to Pokhara University)

sudarshan.adhkari@gmail.com

 

Dr. Sanjeeb Pd. Panday

Thesis Supervisor

Nepal College of Information Technology

Balkumari, Lalitpur, Nepal

sanjeeb77@hotmail.com

Abstract – Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) communication technology has received a significant attention in the area of wireless communication systems. MIMO provide reliable transmission and increasing data rate than traditional single input single output system. Increasing the number of transmit or receive antennas increases channel throughput. In this thesis linear and non-linear detection techniques are analyzed. The linear detection techniques such as Zero Forcing (ZF), Classical-Minimum Mean Square Error (C-MMSE) and Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) are tested and results are analyzed. In linear MIMO detection schemes, pre-coding at the transmitter is provided. It is observed that this detection scheme is sensitive to the impact of spatial correlation caused by mutual coupling between antenna elements and the spatial propagation conditions of the wireless channel. Also, the non-linear detection techniques which included Maximum Likelihood (ML), Minimum Mean Square Error-Successive Interference Cancellation (MMSE-SIC) and Zero Forcing-Successive Interference Cancellation (ZF-SIC) are tested and results are analyzed. The results depicts how to apply non-linear detection, which can help mitigating the impact of correlated signals, in a closed-loop MIMO system and compare the average rates achieved with different detection schemes.

Keywords: MIMO detection, CMMSE, MMSE, MMSE-SIC, ML, Wireless communication, Zero-Forcing, ZF-SIC.

  1. Design of ANN based MPPT Controller for Solar Panel

Authors: Kapil Duwadi and Nischal Guruwacharya

Abstract: The rapid depletion of fossil fuels and rising environmental problems opened a door for renewable energy sources. Among mostly used renewable energy sources, solar energy is one of them. Due to higher cost of solar panel, efficient operation is essential. Maximum power point tracking is the common method of extracting a maximum power at available solar irradiance. A data-based approach to reach maximum power point which is based on artificial neural network (ANN) is proposed in this paper. The network model is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

Keywords: Solar Panel, ANN, Maximum Power Point, Data based approach

  1. Design and Fabrication of Single Phase Dynamic Voltage Restorer

Authors:

Bibek K.C
Bibek Pandey
Saroj Sapkota
Pawan Shah
Department of Electrical Engineering
Central Campus, Pulchowk, IOE, T.U.
Sarojsapkota338@gmail.com

Prof. Dr. Indraman Tamrakar
Department of Electrical Engineering
Central Campus, IOE, T.U.

Abstract—Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is a custom power device used in electrical distribution system for power quality improvement. The main application of DVR is for voltage compensation of sensitive loads against voltage disturbances such as voltage sag and voltage swell in distribution lines. It is a series connected device and is able to compensate voltage sag and voltage swell by injecting a voltage with the help of series injection transformer. Conventionally, DVR consists of an energy storage device which supplies the required power over the limited duration of the sags through a inverter.